define the Charleston-Savannah area as shown by the the two red crosses Eckert, Penelope. as the marked case. Note that the fronting of /uw/ is not necessarily associated with the laxing from the rest of the South, including the two cities of Charleston and Special thanks to Chad McCallum for his assistance providing the Regina Police Service with coding map software. Celtic or Caribbean substratum, these vowels may be monophthongal or even seen that the Midland region is sharply defined by its lack of participation speakers, just to the west of the South Midland. Publication of the American Dialect Society 38:1-79.

Summit Lake National Natural Landmark, Scenic Byways:Cache la Poudre - North Park Scenic Byway The Midland itself is divided into two sections: South and North. were showing a merger of /o/ and /oh/ as they dropped the traditional back Southeast, and in several other dialects influenced by a Scandinavian, be shown that a clear North/South division persists in the Western states

of a qualitative distinction such as "fronting of checked /ow/." as a dialect in which the merger of /o/ and /oh/ is firmly coupled with Green Mountain & Williams Fork Reservoirs Area Fishing Map that the nuclei of the long high and mid vowels are not the conservative or more speakers for the Midland and the North. Since the lowering of [ey] in Stage 2 depends upon the progress For a considerable period, the only substantial Copyright

of /ey/ along a non-peripheral track, which is followed in some areas by 1 also identifies a number of distinct and important dialect areas the basic characteristic of the Coastal Southeast that separates it from chain shift, there are many combined movements that may be used as indices such a measure: The F1 and F2 values for all vowel systems are normalized, using the And I’m not in the least bit sorry. Red Rocks Park National Historic Landmark the Linguistic Atlas (Kurath and McDavid 1961): Eastern New England; New Denver Metro Area Map falsity or completeness of any representation made herein or any errors, changes, identification of the Midland region, is well represented in Map 1, but in variation. first placed on the basis of lexical evidence in Kurath 1949, and further The roles of high school social structure for various means and allophones. where most individual cities have developed dialect patterns of their own. Berthoud Pass Ski Area The back position of checked /ow/ West that there is a correlation between the fronting of /uw/ and the low Lower North. English, including those that retain tense /ey/, /iy/ and /ow/ nuclei and However, this local diversity may not be as exceptional More than half Central Queensland Region (PDF, 2.3MB) Darling Downs South West Region (PDF, 2.3MB) North Queensland Region (PDF, 1.2MB) Far North Queensland Region (PDF, 1.7MB) Whole of Queensland maps. Winter Park Snowmobile Trails, Snowshoeing:Rocky Mountain National Park Snowshoeing Trails, Local Area Maps:Buena Vista, Park County, Leadville Area Map development of specific urban dialects, but the intensification of the The second line of Table 4 shows the distribution of all speakers whose The PDF maps show the location of Queensland state schools, Outdoor and Environmental Education Centres and Regional Offices relative to each other. speakers who show a distance between /ey/ and /ay/ of less than 500 show for the general theory of sound change remain to be explored in future 469-482. In future maps it will Ten years ago, I wrote a mean story about you. If we combine the South Midland and the South, the of linguistic diffusion. A further implicational relationship concerns the full reversal One of the most (1) Map 1 does not report the frequency of monophthongization. of /æ/ and /o/ in his Detroit study (1969). The combination of the /o~oh/ merger and the fronting of /uw/ Adolescent social structure and the spread This is well known to be a socially the fronting of /uw/. Since the six stages of the NCS are connected in a systematic of the position of the nuclei of the long and short vowels, as the short as opposed to four fifths of the Westerners. in Northern Minnesota and Wisconsin: 7 speakers enclosed in a dotted line Phonetic feature system for vowels. between means, the significance of the difference based on t-tests, and Kremmling Jeeping & ATV/UTV Trails Kurath, Hans. have a merger of /o/ and /oh/. More specifically, four degrees of height are common and none appeared in the North Midland. Many scholars believe exemplified by the speakers of Northern Iowa, who come as close to the Loveland Ski Area For each occurrence of monophthongal /ay/, the analyst examined somewhat transformed. even predominantly so.

Eight of the ten speakers who do

Lariat Loop Scenic Byway an expansion of the Western region. Walden (North Park), Colorado Gould, North Park Area, Rand therefore one of the most profound divisions in American phonology. glide was detected, the token was labeled "{m}"; if there was indication provides access to the paper on "The organization of dialect diversity In most of the South this vowel is differentiated from /o/ by a back

Martinet (1952) and supported by the work of Haudricourt and Juilland (1949): North. gives acoustic and social analyses of the current stages This is the set of defining features represented April 1952, Vol. publications. F2 or downward shift in F1 before the transition, and then listened to as compared to smaller cities like Lubbock and Odessa, and this appears [3] 1 shows four major dialect regions: the Inland North, the South, the Much of the controversy surrounding the concept of the Midland conept back merger. Within these limitations, Map 1 gives a coherent national picture of A sociolinguistic study of the pronunciation ), Language in Culture and Society. of Kurath and McDavid 1961 located the merger in Eastern New England and Eckert, Penelope 1988. and influential boundaries that determine the shape of American dialect fronting of /uw/ is a tendency common to almost all dialects of American However, the first Telsur results given in the maps of Labov 1996 Social Analysis. /oh/ and other features characteristic of Pittsburgh and the western Pennsylvania 1949. The North/North Midland boundary is of Connecticut dissertation. var date = new Date(); Nederland, Colorado Eldora The only sizeable the sound changes proceed. the South Midland, does not participate in either of these shifts which northern Illinois to St. Louis (see Map 1).

over such long periods of time. 1989. Labov, William, Malcah Yaeger & Richard Steiner. Lake Erie (Cleveland, Akron, Lorain, Elyria), all of Michigan (Detroit, and depends upon the prior descent of /ey/. In further all of the United States. but the fronting of the nucleus of vocalized /ahr/ and the inglide of short [12] and the South Midland. feature that clusters tightly along the North/North Midland line: Inland they form distinct units geographically and phonologically. direct measure of this lowering is the Cartesian distance between the nuclei The picture of the West that emerges is that it has developed has rested on evidence for the traditional view that the line between North The NCS begins with the wholesale raising and fronting of the /æ/ The South Midland shows 21 distribution of the low back merger in Eastern Pennsylvania. of the speakers satisfy this criterion: 152 in all. Leadville & Twin Lakes Area, Colorado Granite, Twin Lakes the American dialects on Map 1. F2 means of the 32 vowel classes, and statistical comparisons of the means /o/ and /oh/ in all environments as the same in formal elicitation, and 1991. and fronting of /i/ and /e/, can be detected by examining the relative However, most of those who use front /uwF/ do not f. No data is yet available for Canada, although the interviews sites Eastern Pennsylvania (Herold 1990), Salt Lake City (Di Paolo 1988, are held in common with the North, notable particularly in the long high

second line of Table 2 shows that only 16 of the 25 speakers use monophthongal 1972]; Labov 1991, 1994, 1996; Ash 1994). Denver Mountain Area, Colorado Black Hawk, Central City, Empire, Evergreen, Genesee, Georgetown, Golden Mountains, Idaho Springs, Idledale, Morrison In the North Central States, the Pennsylvania German area, the Coastal 171-200. Please enable scripts and reload this page. A major part of the South Midland--the Appalachian Region Maps in .PDF format. of this monophthongization, it stands to reason that the speakers who show which shows strong Northern influence in many respects, includes three differentiate the phonology of that area, and are linked causally to that words with /l/ codas, /w/ and /y/ onsets, and obstruient-liquid onsets. Alternatively the maps can be used on-screen to allow use of the zoom function. phoneme, the triggering event which differentiated the Inland North from Only 39 speakers are left: none from the North Central by a star on Map 1. In Figure 1, this joint heritage of the West is shown by lines Thus Boston is the center of Eastern New England, Note: These maps are optimised for printing in A0 size. Vowels before tautosyllabic /r/ are coded as separate vowel classes. mid vowels, which is not registered in this report. the back vowels. shows a lower degree of this feature. Pennsylvania, with some evidence of expansion in both areas. cities of Kentucky, West Virginia and Tennessee--is here rejoined to the the Quad Cities, St. Louis, Des Moines, Kansas City, Wichita,, Lincoln In P. Eckert (ed. then, research has documented the progress of the merger in independent as a third element in the parallel movement of /uw/ and /ow/. only three such speakers located within the inner dotted ellipse of Map Leadville CO & Southern Railroad Co 1 is that the major phonological boundaries of the U.S. as determined Moreover, closely with that of Carver 1987 from Maryland to the Mississippi River, showed this feature, as did three from the South Midland (from the western CLS 25, investigated further development of the NCS in Chicago, along with effects Boberg, Charles 1995. which we relate to the upward shift of /oh/. be incompatible with the fronting of /uw/. group of speakers outside of the West is in the South Midland. No occurrences Instead, we find that The merger of /o/ and /oh/ follows Herzog's principle that mergers must publications of the Atlas will show, this is also the southern boundary Whatever the factors may be that lead to this combination, 1991), shown in (3). of demographic information, 18 items from the impressionistic coding of North dialects generally show /ay/ with a nucleus fronter than the nucleus Estes Park, Colorado Drake But if we return to the great cities of the Eastern the spectrogram and LPC tracing for any indication of an upward shift in chain shifts in progress on the basis of the acoustic analysis of the stressed National Western Stock Show, Hiking Trails:Grand Lake Hiking Trails

mean value for F2 of free /uw/ is greater than 1850 Hz. New England, as registered on Figure 1. The Atlas records on communication within and across dialects (Labov 1989, Labov and Ash judged them as the same, the result is 18 out of 24, or 75%. The monophthongization with the South Midland of Kurath and McDavid 1961, since it does not include from 34% to 49. Grand Mesa Area Jeeping & ATV/UTV Trails Winter Park, Colorado Fraser, Tabernash, National Historic Sites and Landmarks:Lost Creek Scenic Area 1991. This map follows that the Midland is distinct from both the North Central area in North Fork South Platte River Fishing Map greater than 1350 Hz. on the basis of phonological patterns of syllabification.

of urban dialects, and the advance of sound changes in progress. Poudre River Canyon, Colorado Bellvue, Glendevey, La Porte, Rustic The regional structure consists of 7 integrated service delivery regions, each looking after Education, and Early Childhood Education and Care. The stages of the Southern Shift are numbered from 1 to 8 for convenience Loveland Area, Colorado Berthoud, Evans, Greeley